Step 1:
Technology analysis and conceptual liquefaction process assessment

  • Technology overview
  • Boundary conditions and duty specifications
  • Screening and pre-selection of large-scale liquefaction concepts and alternatives for central sub-systems


Step 2a: Process optimisation

  • Detailed process design/optimisation of large-scale process
  • Component selection and improvement
  • Improved ortho-para conversion
  • Assessment of the pre-optimised design against targets and criteria, including efficiency
  • Final design optimisation

Step 2b: Whole chain assessment

  • Scenario development for liquid hydrogen usage
  • Hazard and risk assessment and mitigation measures
  • Life cycle and economic assessment


Step 3:
Planning and preparation of a
large-scale demonstration

  • Definition of a next-generation liquefier based on optimised process
  • Logistical and geographic issues
  • Plan for demonstration


  • Functional schemes of promising highly efficient large-scale hydrogen liquefaction processes
  • Targets, criteria and boundary conditions








  • Optimised process scheme and technical design of selected processes
  • Liquid hydrogen implementation scenario and whole chain assessment benchmarks





  • Strategy and script for large-scale demonstration and options for sites